If you're buying a home for the very first time, the process may seem a little daunting. After all, buying a home is probably one of the biggest investments you'll ever make. It helps to have a REALTOR® on your team -- someone who speaks the language of real estate very well.
A REALTOR® has the experience and the knowledge to guide you through the process of buying your first home and can help take the mystery out of the many terms, phrases and clauses you will encounter.
The following glossary, an excerpt from the Ontario Real Estate Association's "How to Buy Your Home" book, provides definitions of some of the most common real estate terms you are likely to come across.
The book also fully explains the process of buying a home and is available free-of-charge by calling 1-800-563-HOME or talk to your local REALTOR®.
Amortization: The number of years it takes to repay the entire amount of a mortgage.
Appraisal: An estimate of a property's market value, used by lenders in determining the amount of the mortgage.
Appreciation: The increase of a property's value over time.
Assessment: The value of a property set by the local municipality, for the purposes of calculating property tax.
Assumable Mortgage: A mortgage held on a property by the seller that can be taken over by the buyer, who then accepts responsibility for making the mortgage payments.
Blended Mortgage: A combination of two mortgages, one with a higher interest rate than the other, to create a new mortgage with an interest rate somewhere between the two original rates.
Blended Mortgage Payments: Equal or regular mortgage payments, consisting of both a principal and an interest component. With each successive payment, the amount applied to interest decreases and the amount applied to the principal increases, although the total payment doesn't change. (Exception - see variable rate mortgages.)
Bridge Financing: Money borrowed against a homeowner's equity in a property, usually for a short term, to help finance the purchase of another property or make improvements to a property being sold.
Buy-down: When the seller reduces the interest rate on a mortgage by paying the difference between the reduced rate and market rate directly to the lender or to the purchaser, in one lump sum or monthly instalments.
Closing: The real estate transaction's completion, when the parties involved agree that all legal and financial obligations have been met, and the deed to the property is transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Conventional Mortgage: A first mortgage issued for up to 75 per cent of the property's appraised value or purchase price, whichever is lower.
Counteroffer: One party's written response to the other party's offer during purchase negotiations between buyer and seller.
Debt Service Ratio: The percentage of a borrower's gross income that can be used for housing costs, including mortgage payment and taxes (and condominium fees, when applicable).
Deed: A legal document that conveys (transfers) ownership of a property to the buyer.
Easement: A legal right to use or cross (right-of-way) another person's land for limited purposes. A common example is a utility company's right to run wires or lay pipe across a property.
Encroachment: An intrusion onto an adjoining property -- such as a neighbor's fence, storage shed or overhanging roof line that partially (or even fully) intrudes onto your property.
Equity: The difference between the price for which a property can be sold and the mortgage(s) on the property. Equity is the owner's "stake" in a property.
Foreclosure: A legal process by which the lender takes possession and ownership of a property when the borrower defaults on the mortgage obligations.
High-Ratio Mortgage: A mortgage for more than 75 per cent of a property's appraised value or purchase price.
Land Transfer Tax: Payment to the provincial government for transferring property from the seller to the buyer.
Lien: Any legal claim against a property, filed to ensure payment of a debt.
Mortgagee: The lender.
Mortgage Insurance: Government-backed or private-backed insurance protecting the lender against the borrower's default on high-ratio (and other types) of mortgages.
Mortgagor: The borrower.
Multiple Listing Service (MLS): A system for relaying information to REALTORS® about properties for sale.
Prepayment Privilege: A mortgage feature that allows the borrower to prepay a portion or all of the principal balance with or without penalty. This privilege is frequently restricted to specific amounts and times.
Principal: The mortgage amount initially borrowed, or the portion still owing on the mortgage. Interest is calculated on the principal amount.
Status Certificate: A written statement of a condominium unit's current financial and legal status.
Variable-Rate Mortgage: A mortgage for which payments are fixed, but whose interest rate changes in relationship to fluctuating market interest rates. If market rates go up, a larger portion of the payment goes to interest. If rates go down, a larger portion of the payment is applied to the principal.
Vendor-Take-Back Mortgage: When sellers use their equity in a property to provide some or all of the mortgage financing in order to sell the property.
Zoning Regulations: Strict guidelines set by municipal governments regulating how a property may or may not be used.
REALTOR® is a registered trademark of REALTOR Canada Inc., a company owned equally by The Canadian Real Estate Association and the National Association of REALTORS® and refers to registered real estate practitioners who are members of The Canadian Real Estate Association. Used under license.